🎬 Frame Rate

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Common frame rates include:

  • 24 fps: The ‘standard’ frame rate of film
  • 25 fps: PAL standard in Europe and other parts of the world
  • 23.976: One-thousandth of a second slower than 30 frame/s, due to the NTSC color encoding process interfering with the sound subcarrier. Audio in telecine has to be multiplied by .1% to match. It doesn’t matter too much if you shoot at 24 or 23.98, just make sure sound and audio recorder are using matching frame rates.
  • 29.97: One-thousandth of a second slower than 30 frame/s, due to the NTSC color encoding process interfering with the sound subcarrier. Audio in telecine has to be multiplied by .1% to match.
  • 30: Standard frame rate for
  • 60i: 60 interlaced fields per second (field order is important)

Remember to set the frame rate of your project at the beginning. Any clips that do not conform to the timeline frame rate will be played back with skipped or duplicated frames to try to match the timeline frame rate.

It’s tough to convert from 30 fps to 24 fps so do try to avoid this. Most of the other common conversions are possible with less potential for harming the image.

Pulldown

This is the process of converting 24 fps footage to 29.97 fps. The opposite is called a ‘reverse pulldown’.

The increased “temporal” resolution of 60i makes for a better conversion to 24p.

Drop Frame Timecode

Drop Frame Timecode drops two frame numbers from each minute except every tenth minute. This isn’t dropping actual video frames, just the timecode numbers relating to those frames. Notice the ; semicolon used to designate drop frame timecode.

Drop frame time code does NOT exist for 23.976 because there simply isn’t an easy way to make it work mathematically.

Frame.io has a great resource on timecode and frame rate.

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